Friday, February 12, 2010

Limitations of Cost-Volume Profit Analysis

The CVP analysis is generally made under certain limitations and with certain assumed conditions, some of which may not occur in practice. Following are the main limitations and assumptions in the cost-volume-profit analysis:
1. It is assumed that the production facilities anticipated for the purpose of cost-volume-profit analysis do not undergo any change. Such analysis gives misleading results if expansion or reduction of capacity takes place.
2. In case where a variety of products with varying margins of profit are manufactured, it is difficult to forecast with reasonable accuracy the volume of sales mix which would optimize the profit.
3. The analysis will be correct only if input price and selling price remain fairly constant which in reality is difficulty to find. Thus, if a cost reduction program is undertaken or selling price is changed, the relationship between cost and profit will not be accurately depicted.
4. In cost-volume-profit analysis, it is assumed that variable costs are perfectly and completely variable at all levels of activity and fixed cost remains constant throughout the range of volume being considered. However, such situations may not arise in practical situations.
5. It is assumed that the changes in opening and closing inventories are not significant, though sometimes they may be significant.
6. Inventories are valued at variable cost and fixed cost is treated as period cost. Therefore, closing stock carried over to the next financial year does not contain any component of fixed cost. Inventory should be valued at full cost in reality.

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